Denmark is acknowledged energy problem solving is the best one of the countries. The first oil shock in 1973 after Danish actively adjusting the energy structure, relying on scientific and technological progress, improving energy efficiency, actively develop renewable energy, explores a energy "clean and efficient and sustainable development road. From 1980 until now, Denmark’s GDP rose nearly 60 percent, but energy consumption basic maintained changeless, has made remarkable achievement.
A, wind power
Denmark’s wind power began to research in 1891, is the earliest begin wind power of the research and application of one of the few countries. After years of development, Denmark has formed their wind power industry and the competitive fan manufacturing, its fan production worldwide covered about 40 percent of the market. By the end of 2006, Denmark total installed capacity of wind power 3135 megawatts (MW), in just four million square kilometers of land area have 5266 Taiwan fan in operation. In recent years the development of Danish wind is an important trend to sea development, by the end of 2005 Denmark offshore wind farm has reached 8, and installed capacity 423MW, another 2 each 200MW sea wind farms in the tender construction. In 2005, Denmark already accounted for wind power generating capacity of the whole, and the government expects by 20.8% 2009 reach 25% in 2025 30%. Danish Wind Industry Association (Association - Danish Wind judge not DWIA) put forward more ambitious "Wind 50" scheme, suggested by 2025 Denmark Wind total power consumption ratio, 50% of the plan in the current basis add 1700 Taiwan fan.
In the 1990s, the Danish wind power development is rapid, wind power industry has become a leading global market Danish minority areas, annual turnover of more than 50 billion Danish krone, serving more than 20,000 people provide employment opportunities. As technology advances, fan of power is more and more big, and improve soon. In 2000, the national average power per fan for 856KW, 2002 to 1356KW, 2003 is to 2045KW leap. Future trend is to use 3MW wind-driven generator replace current 2MW motor, 5MW even 10MW fan is also developed. On the other hand, in the past 20 years, the cost of wind power has been reduced by about 3/4,1981 years of wind power cost per KWH 1.2 kroner around until 1999 fell to 0.3 kroner around ($0.4 yuan). Fan size in the past 15 years have dramatic change. Because of the rapid development of technology, today can be generally see rotation diameter for 48 ~ 54 meters, output power for 750 ~ 1,000 KW of fans, are being power for 2,000 KW, machine high tower 70-80 meters, wing rotating diameter of 72 meters fan replaced. Now, a 2,000 KW fan electricity generated than 1980 135 Taiwan fan combined more, standalone power-demand increase greatly.
Second, biological energy
Organisms or Biomass (Bio - Biomass energy/energy) is one of the forms of renewable energy. Its main from energy plant or agriculture, forestry, fishery by-products (straw, wood chip, processing enterprise organic waste, animal feces, etc.), from biological renewable collagen conversion form of energy. Biomass energy is the only thing that in gaseous, liquid, and solid forms exist renewable can.
In unaltered application technology, there exist several basic applied direction. One is the crops straw, wood chip as fuel directly combustion, convert energy. 2 it is using the biomass conversion technologies into liquid, gas and solid energy carrier, including: the crops and straw into bioethanol and biodiesel, the organic agricultural wastes into combustible gas, etc. Three is to develop exclusively as energy resources of plants and their crops and monarch by cultivating a cultivated land planting these selected, with a high density of plants.
(a) orange stem power and heating
In the 1980s, Danish government restrictions farmers burn in the field, but these crops straw stalk offers 120 district heating boilers and 10 million families small heating device as fuel. In 1993, June 14, Denmark parliament passed Biomass Biomass protocol (each). According to this agreement, large power plants must annually by the use of 1.2 million tons of wheat straw and 20 million tons of sawdust as cogeneration of fuel. At present, the 15 to biomass for fuel cogeneration plant produce 40 million watts, wheat straw and sawdust power contribution Denmark about 5% of the consumption of electricity.
With straw as fuel, is already Denmark some of large power plants component parts. Retinoids II (more than Aved? Re II) power plant is to use coal, oil, natural gas and straw and so on many kinds of fuel cogeneration representative.
(2) center biogas plant
Denmark by industrialization ways to use biogas began in the late 1980s. At present, Denmark has established 20 centralized center biogas plant, everyday can handle 50-600 cubic meters of raw material, otherwise 55 single farm biogas plant. These biogas plant through reasonable distribution in various districts, effectively promote the agricultural comprehensive utilization of resources, regional development and environmental protection. By 2025, Denmark will additional new 50 center biogas plant.
Biogas plan for Denmark’s environment minister, ministry of agriculture, the fund support, the general budget Danish krone 12 million. Center biogas plant normally with surrounding farms (pigs, such as cow muck 75%) and food processing enterprises provide organic waste (25%) as raw material by the industrialized treatment, then generate biogas conveyed to the region of gas boiler heating or cogeneration plant, excess material can serve as a good fertilizer. Biogas technology can effectively reduce the nitrate emissions, eliminate smell, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, make full use of organic wastes. Methane is both good energy sources, and at the same time and for agricultural production and environmental protection. In Denmark more representative large center biogas plant has Lintrup, Lemvig Ribe, etc, annual output of biogas in 5 million stere.
In recent years the Danish red cable (Ris)? National laboratory in this respect conducted fruitful research work. Its using pretreatment and fermentation technology decomposition of corn straw lignin, fiber and hemicellulose, treated obtain bioethanol (alcohol). The experimental data show that the field one ton of corn USES only in corn grain as raw material to produce 188 litres of alcohol, only with corn straw and soon, as raw material to produce ethanol 155 liters per ton corn raw material, it can produce about 340 litres of alcohol. These bioethanol can be used as automobile fuel blend. Since 2004, rui cable LABS have and jilin light industrial design institute for cooperative development of industrialization device and production line. Participation and cooperation of Chinese experts think, Denmark in the pretreatment and fermentation technology lead in the United States.
In the business world, Denmark Elam company walk on bioethanol industrialized production front row. The company was established by using the eu funded by the world’s largest bioethanol processing Demonstration Unit (Process Demonstration Unit - units = pdus). The unit with straw and living garbage of organic wastes as raw material by the phases pretreatment and fermentation obtain bioethanol.
In addition, the technical university of Denmark (DTU) BioGasol Aps company is research and development using orange stem waste production second-generation bioethanol technology, and enter the substantive start-up. The company using innovative technology low cost to produce ethanol, hydrogen, methane etc biofuels, its processing technology could be the future with lignocellulose based bioethanol industrial standards.
The production of ethanol is very important one is to have the enzyme of devotion, Denmark’s famous company Novozymes (Novozymes A/S) now about 10% of revenue for ethanol production provides the required enzymes. (www.novozymes.com)
(4) hydrogen and methanol
Technical university of Denmark (DTU) environment department of riker na, LiDa qiqi costanzo professor leadership team, developed a 2-phase anaerobic fermentation reactor, to farm organic waste and city garbage as raw material, through optimizing the influence parameter control prepare hydrogen and methane. Experiments show that, using 35% of the organic matter content of urban garbage, can get yield 12 cubic meters/tons of hydrogen, In preparing methane stage, by controlling volatile fatty acid concentration, we can obtain a yield of 133 m3 / tons of methane.
Integrated a two-stage fermentation process, this technology can also generate hydrogen and methane, have than traditional anaerobic fermentation device higher comprehensive efficiency. At present, the team in discussion with special strains degradation organic waste and control related parameters in the way of improving gas production and facing the industrial production of intermediate experiment. The team in anaerobic fermentation process control has accumulated rich experience and professional knowledge.
Just biomass speaking, Denmark is becoming a lead role industrialized countries. This role, it is through its main technical direction of efforts to reflect, which include the use of straw fuel power generation, establish the central biogas plant used for heating and power generation, the biomass into liquid fuels and combustible gas and forward-looking energy crops research and development, etc.
Three, the future of new energy
(a) Fuel cell (Fuel Cells).
Fuel cell is a chemical battery, the fuel the reaction between generate energy, such as liquid hydrogen and oxygen, need not burning oxidants and sustained directly into electricity. It can be widely used for single family power supply, also can be used in cogeneration plant, or transportation, etc., compared with the traditional electric power production has many advantages, high efficiency, low pollution characteristics. Currently in Denmark engaged in research basically has two kinds, one kind is 1-500KW temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), used for large scale power station, Another kind is low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell, used by small stations. Can use, including various types of fuel gas, methanol, methane, hydrogen, etc. Now still in developing a PV Cells fuel Cells.
Fuel cells can be natural gas in the chemical energy into electricity, the efficiency is about 55%, Can the hydrogen directly into electrical energy or, conversely, electricity can come into hydrogen. SOFC type fuel cell commercialized estimates will still need to 5-10 years. The study in Denmark rui cable national laboratory is given priority to, in addition Topsoe Fuel Cell company (IRD www.topsoefuelcell.com), A/S company (www.ird.dk). Another H2 questions in r&d fuel-cell vehicles, url www.h2logic.dk.
(2) wave power.
Sea wind power was natural storage place, the waves are contained in the great energy wave power plants can will the energy into electrical energy waves. Denmark’s many home research institutions and investors in the study, 2003 Denmark first waves in the Dragon and Wave power plant model 5-month-construction period. The factory is a collection of many European countries with research institutions and companies together built. Its principle is to guide the waves up to a slope shape device that, when the waves over the slope, can form a full of water reservoir. This reservoir and sea-level have head, using the gap can drive a turbine generating electricity. The waves plants according to the circumstance but can small, it is proposed to build a factory in beihai 2.2 million tons, heavy 260 meters wide, and 4MW, every year power generator capacity can reach 12Gwh. Have measure estimation, commercially waves of electricity power in about 0.04 euro/degrees. From the start, the Wave Dragon company has from the Danish government and European energy agency etc won about 7.6 million euros for financial support. Address: the Wave Dragon ApSBlegdamsvej 4, DK - 2200 Copenhagen N, DenmarkPhone: + 45 3537 0211 / + 45-37 02 11, 35 + 45 3537 tlx.number: 4537Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Denmark another study Wave power for the Wave Star Energy company, its web site for www.wavestarenergy.com. (3) hydrogen r&d. The world in water contains hydrogen is almost unlimited amount of hydrogen, and in the burning of don’t release carbon dioxide. If the hydrogen as a kind of energy carrier, can be more simple and efficient store electricity, still can be directly used for traffic areas. Use of fossil fuels and renewable energy can produce hydrogen, especially use wind, fuel cells, biomass energy and hydropower production such as hydrogen, will be able to avoid the harm of CO2. Technically speaking, the production of hydrogen the most key link is electrolysis, at present the electrolysis of efficiency is 75-85%, using the new method is expected to increase to 90%. It was also from organic matter directly produce methanol and hydrogen. Future hydrogen society requires not only technical progress, will need a lot of infrastructure facilities. Technical university of Denmark, AoHuSi university, rui cable national laboratories and Haldor Topsoe A/s, Danfoss A/s has four consecutive years accept government funding engaged in hydrogen development. Also in joint Nordic research forces for joint tackling. Can see url: www.h2foresight.info and www.risoe.dk anyhow, Denmark through the development of renewable energy sources and new energy, are hard molded future energy supply mode: when the world fossil energy reserves getting closer to the exhaustion, people can from sunlight, wind, farmland and city "waste" in the energy needed to obtain their form, electricity, heat and transportation fuel.