Iceland is located in the north Atlantic, north American and European central two plates, the area 10.3 square kilometers, population 300,000. 2005 GDP per capita of $44,000, ultra high in the world. Its economic development mode conspicuous. Iceland economy mainly based on natural resources and coastal fishing, hydraulics, geothermal resources and grassland utilization. Since the early 1990s, Iceland government gradually increased economic diversified reform to change Iceland economic dependence fisheries and pastoral single economic model. Since 1994, sustainable economic development, the industrial structure adjust gradually, manufacturing industry and tourism service industry expanded rapidly, annual GDP growth around 4%, the unemployment rate under 2%. In economic development and industrial structure transformation process, ice political stability and policy appropriate, among them, the progress of technology and development play an important role, make the ice in energy development and utilization, IT, life science and Marine fishery fields ranks among the world’s most advanced ranks.
A, energy development
(a) water resources and geothermal resources
Iceland has water is the European per capita per capita water 600 times. Geothermal resources but also on it
Only thick. Geological experts study shows that Iceland crust thickness 0-100 km range of geothermal resources content for 3 billion 1TWH TWH (geothermal energy, equivalent to 100 million KWH); The crust thickness 0-3 kilometers within the scope of the geothermal content is 30 million TWH, Technically availability for 1 million TWH. Iceland is currently only for the development and utilization of temperature of 100-460 ℃ geothermal resources, depth in the surface of 200-2,000 meters, LiYongLiang equals approximately Iceland available geothermal total millionth of -.
In recent years, Iceland government attaches great importance to energy development and utilization. So far, the ice territory has completed the hydroelectric power stations, six seats in the annual generation 600 million degrees (GHW) above, and plan expansion and new hydro-electric power six seats. Meanwhile Iceland has also established four seat geothermal power station, including power generating power for 6 million kilowatts card Ralph pull (Krafla) geothermal power station, 0.3 million kilowatts than gallas Cardiff lai case (Bjarnarflag) geothermal power station, 6 million kilowatts Nestor, and neville lille (Nesjavellir) geothermal power station and 1.7 million kilowatts of si tile octyl (Svartsengi) geothermal power station. At present, the original thermal power plant expansion and new power station in planning and preparation in.
So far, Iceland geothermal power potential developed only a small part of main power supply still come from hydroelectric power. Iceland at present geothermal development is mainly used for industrial and civil building heating, greenhouse trellis, Marine aquaculture, pool, spa bath, road snowmelt, urban hot water supply, etc. Since no pollution, Iceland’s called the world pollution-free countries, natural environment and ecological still retain its original state.
(2) relying on energy development and utilization of manufacturing
Iceland is a resource scarcity but energy plenty of countries, give full play to the advantages of energy development of relative industries and promote industrial the variety of Iceland government in recent years development economy important policies. Among them, make full use of the Kyoto protocol, carbon dioxide emissions quotas, vigorously develop energy-intensive industries as their primary, one is the metal smelting industries, including aluminum and ferroalloy, magnesium, ferrosilicon and abrasive materials, steel, zinc smelting industry development. 2 it is chemical industries, including poly alcohol, alcohol (alcohol), refinery, papermaking, pigment, oxygen, special chemical industry development. At present, the ice has large aluminium plant, ferrosilicon 6 seats, annual output of aluminum plant nearly 50 tons, become ice manufacturing pillar industry, and in accordance with the expansion, preparation and planning in the aluminum plant scale, and 2010-2020, the annual output of aluminum will break million tons of ice. Aluminum plant construction also promoted the hydropower and geothermal resources exploitation.
(3) hydrogen energy research and development
To make full use of Iceland water conservancy, geothermal resources, reduce oil imports, control environmental pollution, ice taking place, hydrogen energy research development and utilization. In 1999, the energy companies, research institutes and government established Iceland new energy company focused on the development of new energy and use. In March 2001 onwards, Iceland new energy company began implementing Ecological urban traffic System project (Ecological City Transport System or ECTOS), Iceland, is the first to hydrogen fuel real sense of demonstration projects. In 2003, 3 vehicles using the fuel bus is in operation.
?? Although there are still many problems to be solved, such as car with hydrogen for fuel bus cost than a car diesel buses 6 times higher than hydrogen use cost, and it is impossible to with gasoline and diesel competition, but the development of new energy use not only symbolizes the scientific and technological progress, is also the future of humanity will confront and resolve major issue.
Second, Marine fishery
Ice government thinks, grasps the Marine fishery science and technology’s goal is to sustainable utilization Marine resources, and do our best to protect the Marine biodiversity and ecosystem was not damaged. Through reasonable enjoy all Marine resources, make its output long-term maintain the best level. Therefore, all decision-making must rely on scientific and accurate and timely both economic information source, ensure fishery areas of individual and collective master as clearly and operational guidelines, in good working environment, and further enhance the international competitiveness and keep sustainable development.
(a) management system
Iceland to sea resources research can be traced back to a century ago. Icelanders clear role and seafood resources to their importance. Seafood exports accounted for 40% of the total export Iceland. In the recapture eez control soon, icelanders realize soberly, over-fishing has put their most valuable fishery resources nearly exhausted. All forms of limit fishing measures of various comes on stage in succession, management system of political debate intensified. In 1983, Iceland parliament decided to each fishing boats 1981-1983 catches on basis of the quota allocation management system. Individual quotas transferable system and quotas for the year FenPeiZhi Iceland, is the core of fisheries management, as well as other several auxiliary measures. The provisions of fishing gear is one, if stipulate mesh size, etc. Due to the coast is fish eggs and breeding area, don’t allow trawl fishing. BuLaoWang of mesh also can not be too big, lest catch to young fish. Also established many temporary ban sea regulation, prevent fishing is spawning of fish. Moreover, if fisher’s fishing amount exceeds a certain proportion, Marine studies all power without prior notice temporarily closed fisheries.
(2) fishing quotas
Iceland existing fishing quotas are fisheries according to the suggestion to determine Marine research institute annual admissions fishing amount, then undertakes allocation. According to the annual licensing fishing amount, BuLaoChuan was awarded a fish’s fishing quotas. All fishing quotas composition 100% obtain the fingerling quota. All commercial fishing with quotas in the limit of. In establishing a quota system, quota was initially based on before each fishing boat fishing amount of historical basis and later developed into distribution in the annual quota fishing amount within the framework of the single quota increase exponentially distributed. Each fishing boats according to the single species quotas granted fishing. This is fishing quotas.
Each fishing boats holdings of fixed quota and annual fishing quotas are divisible and transferable to other boats, must pay the transfer fee. Separate fishing quotas will not exceed the enterprise to hold all the fish quotas 12%, suffer the most value to single species of quota value 35%.
1984 is to implement annual quota allocation in the first year, however, 1990, before the system has not play the role of total limit fishing. Currently in operation of the fisheries management integrated system still based on the quota allocation, the purpose is to promote Marine resources protection and effective use, ensure employment stability and the revitalization of fishery economy. On the basis of the study, fishery management system is still in the continuous improvement and development.
In 2004, fishery management system become unity of quota system. According to their respective fishing license, all sizes fishing boats were awarded fishing quotas. Sea fishing quota system notation system and days of fusion produced a comprehensive system to ensure the fisheries minister decision accords with fishing, support sustainable use of natural resources. The management have three main parts, it is individual quotas transferable system; 2 it is small fishing quota system, transferable to fishing tools and quota transfer restrictions, Three is the regional policy adjustment is made, will be a limited number of the quota allocation to fishery living and constantly suffers economic fluctuations or other negative impact of community fishing boats.
Holding right owners should pay fishing fishing fee. Pay fee is according to how much fishing every year fishing income and fishing quotas to decide how much. From catching seafood worth removing the fuel, labor and other operating costs, calculate the fishing fee will be equivalent to multiply 9.5%, except the cod quantity value fishing, it is concluded that is the following year distribution of fishing quotas based fishing fee. From fishing fee income over to the state Treasury. For the first time charterer levy fishing 2004-2005 annual fee began, in 2009-2010 year overall moving in the right direction.
(3) the attention economy benefit
The main characteristics of Iceland fishery management lies in the economic benefit of attention. Its overall, including fishery processing and sales, benefit from taking market and available labor determine fishing amount. Fishing depending on how many investment quota, avoid the excessive or insufficient investment. Fishing quotas by those who use good benefit company to obtain, allowing different species quotas transfer also prompted the company more specialization. Quotas alienable make fishing company may, in light of the actual existence of fish resources every year quantity adjustment quotas buy quantity. In most cases, fishing and processing has a direct relationship, fishing boats and processing plants belonging to the same company.
Will be awarded to the individual fishing quotas, rather than corporate practices didn’t cause fishing and processing the imbalance between, real major changes because the quotas alienable and make local and regional fishing amount changed, successful quotas company corresponding get more fishing and manufactured.
(4) effectively monitor
In Iceland, to catches weighing and registration are in the dock. Each fishing amount after weighing, data input fishery administration information management center database, management center holds the Iceland size of fishing actual fishing amount. When the fishing amount information input database, anyone can all through the Internet inquiries. This management mode increase the transparency and ensure the Icelandic size of fishing fishing operation and catches effectively monitor.
Quotas mechanism has been effectively put in a limited fishing amount control, within the scope of the actual fishing amount also extremely transparency, only a little different, although all fishing amount in Iceland on land registration type database, but 97% of the fishing amount is exported to abroad. This management system also by other management measures, such as closed some auxiliary waters, and protect young fish and endangered species, or severe restrictions on fishing tools etc.
(5) resource protection and fish farms
Iceland all fisheries area 75.8 square kilometers, is the world’s most rich fish resources. Winter, cod resources of the most abundant waters is located in the southwest coast of Iceland, annual the most abundant resources in Iceland cod Fjords waters of the west. Northwest Red guppy mostly in Iceland, western and southern southeastern waters. Herring mostly confined to the Fjords eastern waters and Iceland southeast coast, wool scale fish in Iceland, located in north deep-water shrimp Iceland western and southern seas.
Greenland it flatfish often in western deep Fjords waters, or Iceland northern, western and eastern coastal waters. Deep red guppy often along the ridge LeiKeJun gathered in Iceland southwest 200 nm inside and outside. Other seafood, such as shallow shrimp, scallops, Norway lobster and deep-water shrimp etc confined to areas. Iceland coast guard for these fisheries fishing surveillance.
Although Iceland populated, only 30 million, but Iceland is one of the important supplier world seafood. Iceland fishing vessels of nearly 200 tons annually fishing seafood, most export to other countries and regions with an export value more than 20 billion dollars. These seafood from the north Atlantic waters, the original at sea and on the land of processing through the strict health inspection, both safety and health.